The final stage of energy transformation in cellular respiration includes:
- the electron transport chain
- oxidative phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by chemiosmosis.
The Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) is a cyclical metabolic pathway that oxidizes acetyl-CoA to carbon dioxide and water, forming a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The transition reaction, which occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion, is the first step in the process of aerobic cellular respiration.
Glycolysis (Embden–Meyerhof pathway) is the sequence of reactions converting glucose (or glycogen) to pyruvate or lactate, with the production of ATP.
The first stage of cellular respiration, glycolysis, takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. It is an anaerobic process and does not require oxygen.