Chemical equilibrium - the state of a reaction in which all reactants and products have reached constant concentrations in a closed system.

Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide equilibrium

Cato Maximilian Guldberg (1836–1902) and Peter Waage (1833–1900) first proposed the equilibrium law in 1864.

Equilibrium law - the mathematical description of a chemical system at equilibrium

When a mixture of reactants and products of a reaction reaches equilibrium at a given temperature, its equilibrium constant always has the same value.

The equilibrium law is sometimes called the law of mass action.

Le Châtelier’s principle - a generalization that states that:

chemical systems at equilibrium shift to restore equilibrium when a change occurs that disturbs the equilibrium.

An adjustment by a system at equilibrium that results in a change in the concentrations of reactants and products is called an equilibrium shift.

Le Châtelier’s principle allows chemists to predict the qualitative effects of changes in concentration, pressure, and temperature on a chemical reaction system at equilibrium.

Common Acids and Bases in the Home

Common Acids and Bases in the Home