The potential of berberine to extend lifespan is rooted in its intricate effects on living organisms.
It influences key pathways like AMPK and mTOR, impacting cellular aging and, as result, longevity. Berberine has promising prospects of applications in diabetes management and cardiovascular health, along with its noteworthy anti-inflammatory properties and role in mitigating cellular senescence.
Four major types of biomolecules include diverse organic compounds:
- Nucleic acids.
All biological macromolecules with exception of lipids consist of monomers that form natural polymers.
Functions of biological molecules greatly depend on their structure and functional groups.
2 types of nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), are key biomolecules for the continuity of life.
The primary function of DNA is to store the genetic information while RNA is responsible for transferring instructions stored in DNA into proteins.
The building blocks of nucleic acids are monomers called nucleotides consisting of a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Proteins are the most diverse group of all major classes of biological molecules.
They consist of 20 amino acids and 9 of them are essential for the human body.
The chemical properties of amino acids determine four different levels of structure of proteins and their functions.
Triglycerides are energy-rich biomolecules and their main function is to store energy.
A triglyceride consists of glycerol and fatty acids. Such types of fatty acids as omega 3 and omega 6 are essential for the human being.
Phospholipids are the main components of the plasma membrane, while one of the functions of steroids is to serve as signal molecules.
Carbohydrates are the most abundant type of biological molecules.
Monomers of carbohydrates, monosaccharides, are simple sugars, and their primary role is to provide energy. For example, the brain requires a constant supply of sugar to meet its energy needs.
Structural elements of the cell walls in plants and bacteria and cell to cell communications depend on complex carbohydrate polymers such as oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Different types of vitamins are divided into two groups: water-soluble (C and B-complex) and fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) vitamins.
The most of vitamins function as coenzymes.
They are involved in thousand metabolic reactions and essential for a normal physiologic functioning of the human body.
Inadequate vitamin intakes can cause specific disorders.
There are reference values such as recommended dietary allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and tolerable upper intake level (UL) to plan and assess vitamins intakes of healthy people.